A renegotiated withdrawal agreement was ratified in January 2020 and Brexit took place on the 31st of the same month. France expected there to be a Brexit without a deal because a withdrawal agreement had not been ratified. [Citation required] After Brexit, “open skies” agreements were concluded in November and December 2018 with the United States and Canada, which also applied in a non-agreement situation.  Brexit supporters – including Boris Johnson – had proposed using Article 24 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in the event of a non-agreement, to prevent the EU and the UK from being forced to apply tariffs on their mutual trade in the event of a non-agreement. This position has been criticised as unrealistic by Mark Carney, Liam Fox and others, given that paragraph 5c requires an agreement with the EU to ensure that paragraph 5b is useful and does not cover services.   In July, Greece realized that “the election of Boris Johnson as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom creates the conditions for a disorderly Brexit.” That is why, Varvitsiotis said, Greece wanted to “establish a list of the hundreds of outstanding issues that we need to address, because if they are not covered by a comprehensive agreement between the EU and the UK, all these agreements must be drawn up at the bilateral, national level.” He wanted all acts to respect both “the relationships we have and the relationships we are going to build here.”  An analysis by Her Majesty`s Ministry of Finance in 2016 predicted that a Brexit without a deal, under which the UK left the EU and acted with the EU only on WTO terms without new agreements being negotiated, would have resulted in a 7.5% drop in GDP after 15 years for the UK (compared to where it would otherwise have been if the UK had remained a member of the EU).  In April 2019, the International Monetary Fund published an analysis showing that in the event of a non-Brexit agreement, the UK`s GDP would be 3.5% lower in 2019 to 2021 than would have been the case in that year (2019). The IMF also forecast a 0.5% drop in GDP compared to what would have been the case for the rest of the EU by 2021 following a no-deal Brexit.  In June 2019, the Office of Budget Responsibility published an analysis predicting that the economy would shrink by 2% of GDP by 2021 if Brexit was not concluded in 2019, but where the UK`s exit would not be “disturbing or disorderly”.  Finally, as we look at `optimistic` developments, it is worth pointing out overnight a story by the Irish channel RTE, which suggests that the EU is considering a proposal to give supermarkets a first break from paper work for cross-border goods between GB and Northern Ireland.